Paris Agreement


Paris Agreement


At the Paris climate conference (COP21) in December 2015, 195 countries adopted the first-ever universal, legally binding global climate deal.

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The agreement sets out a global action plan to put the world on track to avoid dangerous climate change by limiting global warming to well below 2°C.

Key elements

The Paris Agreement is a bridge between today's policies and climate-neutrality before the end of the century.

Mitigation: reducing emissions

Governments agreed

Before and during the Paris conference, countries submitted comprehensive national climate action plans (INDCs). These are not yet enough to keep global warming below 2°C, but the agreement traces the way to achieving this target.

Transparency and global stocktake

Governments agreed to



Governments agreed to

Loss and damage

The agreement also

Role of cities, regions and local authorities

The agreement recognises the role of non-Party stakeholders in addressing climate change, including cities, other subnational authorities, civil society, the private sector and others.

They are invited to


Questions and answers on the Paris Agreementpdf(120 kB)

Lima-Paris Action Agenda

This initiative of the Peruvian and French COP Presidencies brought countries, cities, businesses and civil society members together to accelerate cooperative climate action in support of the new agreement.

Examples of major announcements
Paris Pledge for Action

EU's role

The EU has been at the forefront of international efforts towards a global climate deal.

Following limited participation in the Kyoto Protocol and the lack of agreement in Copenhagen in 2009, the EU has been building a broad coalition of developed and developing countries in favour of high ambition that shaped the successful outcome of the Paris conference.

The EU was the first major economy to submit its intended contribution to the new agreement in March 2015. It is already taking steps to implement its target to reduce emissions by at least 40% by 2030.

EU Climate Action at COP21 (Storify)
How the EU helped build the ambition coalition (Storify)
Action areas at EU & international level

Next steps


EU vision for the Paris Protocol

Consultative Communication

Durban Platform

EU submissions